DOWNLOAD – WHS Suffrage Scotland – Bibliography



Reference books

Crawford, Elizabeth, The Women’s Suffrage Movement: A Reference Guide, 1866-1928 (London, UCL Press, 1999)

Crawford, Elizabeth, The Women’s Suffrage Movement in Britain and Ireland:A Regional Survey (London: Routledge, 2006)

Cowman, Krista, Women of the Right Spirit: Paid Organisers of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) 1904-1918 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007)

Ewan, Elizabeth,  Rose Pipes, Jane Rendall and Siân Reynolds The New Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018)

Ewan, Elizabeth, Sue Innes, Sian Reynolds and Rose Pipes, The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006)


Books and chapters in edited books

Breitenbach, Esther and Pat Thane (eds), Women and Citizenship in Britain and Ireland in the Twentieth Century (London: Continuum, 2010)

Breitenbach, Esther, ‘Scottish women’s organizations and the exercise of citizenship c. 1900 – c.1979’ in Breitenbach and Thane (eds), Women and Citizenship, pp. 63-78.

Burness, Catriona ‘The Long Slow March: Scottish Women MPs, 1918-1945’ in Esther Breitenbach and Eleanor Gordon (eds), Out of Bounds: Women in Scottish Society, 1800-1945 (Edinburgh University Press, 1992), pp. 151-173.

Burness, Catriona, ‘Count up to twenty-one: Scottish women in formal politics’, in Breitenbach and Thane (eds), Women and Citizenship, pp. 45-62.

Eustance, Claire ‘Citizens, Scotsmen, bairns: manly politics and women’s suffrage in the Northern Men’s Federation, 1913-20’ in Claire Eustance and Angela V John (eds), The Men’s Share? Masculinities, male support and women’s suffrage in Britain, 1890 to 1920 (London: Routledge, 1997).

Gordon, Eleanor, Women and the Labour Movement in Scotland, 1850-1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991)

Hughes, Annmarie, Gender and Political Identities in Scotland (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010)

Innes, Sue and Jane Rendall, ‘Women, Gender and Politics’, in Lynn Abrams, Eleanor Gordon, Deborah Simonton and Eileen Janes Yeo (eds), Gender in Scottish History since 1700 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006), pp. 43-83.

King, Elspeth, ‘The Scottish Women’s Suffrage Movement’ in Breitenbach and Gordon (eds), Out of Bounds: Women in Scottish Society, pp. 121-150.

King, Elspeth, The Scottish Women’s Suffrage Movement (Glasgow: People’s Palace Museum, 1978)

King, Elspeth, The Thenew Factor: The Hidden History of Glasgow’s Women (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1993)

Knox, W. J., Lives of Scottish Women: Women and Scottish Society, 1800-1980 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006) [Eliza Wigham, Frances Balfour, Elsie Inglis, Duchess of Atholl, Mary Brooksbank]

Leneman, Leah, A Guid Cause: The Women’s Suffrage Movement in Scotland (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1991)

Leneman, Leah, In the service of life: the story of Elsie Inglis and the Scottish Women’s Hospitals (Edinburgh: Mercat Press, 1994)

Leneman, Leah, ‘A Truly National Movement: The View from Outside London’, in Maroula Joannou and June Purvis (eds), The Women’s Suffrage Movement: New Feminist Perspectives (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998), pp. 37-50.

Leneman, Leah, The Scottish Suffragettes, (Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland, 2000)

Orr Macdonald, Lesley A, A Unique and Glorious Mission: Women and Presbyterianism, 1830-1930 (Edinburgh: John Donald, 2000)

Orr, Lesley, ‘Protest and Politics’, in Esther Breitenbach, Linda Fleming, Karly Kehoe and Lesley Orr (eds), Scottish Women: A Documentary History (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013), pp. 244-284.

Pedersen, Sarah, The Scottish Suffragettes and the Press (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017)

Smitley, Megan, The feminine public sphere: Middle-Class women in civic life in Scotland, c. 1870-1914 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009)

Smyth, J. J., Labour in Glasgow 1896-1936: socialism, suffrage, sectarianism (East Linton: Tuckwell Press, 2000)

Smyth, J.J, ‘Rents, Peace and Votes: Working Class Women and Political Activity in the First World War’ in Breitenbach and Gordon (eds), Out of Bounds (1992), pp. 174-196.

Watson, Norman, Suffragettes and the Post (2010)


Journal articles

Bain, Andrew,  ‘The Beginnings of Democratic Control of Local Education in Scotland’, Scottish Economic and Social History, 23:1 (2003), pp. 7-25.

Baxter, Kenneth, ‘”The advent of a woman candidate was seen as outrageous….”: Women, party politics and elections in interwar Scotland and England’, in Journal of Scottish Historical Studies, 33:2 (2013), pp. 260-283.

Breitenbach, Esther and Valerie Wright, ‘Women as Active Citizens: Glasgow and Edinburgh c. 1918-1939’, in Women’s History Review, 23:3 (2014), pp. 401-420.

Burness, Catriona, ‘Tracing women in Scottish politics since 1880 and the case of an accidental trailblazer: Katharine, Duchess of Atholl’, Scottish Archives, 4 (1990)

Burness, Catriona, ‘Remember Mary Barbour’, in Scottish Labour History, 50 (2015), pp. 81-96.

Holton, Sandra Stanley, ‘Silk dresses and lavender kid gloves: the wayward career of Jessie Craigen, working suffragist’ in Women’s History Review, 5(1) (1996), pp. 129-150.

Hughes, Annmarie (2005) ‘Fragmented Feminists? The Influence of Class and Political Identity in Relations between the Glasgow and West of Scotland Suffrage Society and the Independent Labour Party in the West of Scotland, c.1919‑1932’, Women’s History Review, 14, pp. 7-32.

Innes, Sue, ‘Constructing women’s citizenship in the inter-war period: the Edinburgh Women Citizens’ Association’, Women’s History Review, 13 (4) (2004), pp. 621-47.

Leneman, Leah, ‘In search of the suffragettes’, Folio (newsletter of National Library of Scotland, 2000)

Leneman, Leah, ‘The  Scottish Churches and “Votes for Women”‘, Records of the Scottish Church History Society, 24 (2), (1991), pp. 237-62.

McDermid, Jane, ‘Blurring the Boundaries: school board women in Scotland, 1873-1919’, Women’s History Review, 19:3 (2010), pp. 357-373.

McDermid, Jane, ‘The Scottish Women’s Hospitals: fund-raising on the home front’, Women’s History, 2:2, (2015), pp. 21-25.

Moore, Lindy, ‘Feminists and femininity: A case-study of WSPU propaganda and local response at a Scottish by-election’ in Women’s Studies International Forum 5(6), (1982), pp. 675-674.

Moore, Lindy, ‘The woman’s suffrage campaign in the 1907 Aberdeen By-election’,

Northern Scotland, 5(2), (1983) pp. 155-178.

Orr, Lesley, ‘”Shall we not speak for ourselves?” Helen Crawfurd, war resistance and the Women’s Peace Crusade, 1916-1918’, in Scottish Labour History, 50 (2015), pp. 97-115.

Pedersen, Sarah, ‘The Conciliatory Suffragette’, in History Scotland (March/April 2005)

Pedersen, Sarah, ‘Women’s politics in the correspondence pages of Aberdeen newspapers 1900-1914’, in Women’s History Review, 11(4), (2002), pp. 657-674.

Smitley, Megan,  ‘”Inebriates”, “heathens”, Templars and suffragists: Scotlnd and imperial feminism, c.1870-1914,’ in Women’s History Review, 11(4) (2002), pp. 455-480.


Local histories

Brewster, Lynn M, Suffrage in Stirling: the Struggle for Women’s Votes (Stirling: Jamieson Munro Trust, 2002)

Browne, Sarah, Making the Vote Count: The Arbroath Women Citizens’ Association 1931-1945 (Dundee: 2007)

Carolan, Janet, Lavinia Malcolm: First Woman Town Councillor in Scotland, 6 November 1907, and First Woman Provost in Scotland 1913 (Dollar Museum, 1997, revised edn 2007).

King, Lillian, Famous Women of Fife (Fife: Windfall Books, 1997) [Annie S Swan, Anna Munro and Jenny McCallum, Jennie Lee]

Leneman, Leah, Martyrs in our midst: Dundee, Perth and the forcible feeding of suffragettes (Dundee: Abertay Historical Society, 1993)

Leneman, Leah,  ‘Dundee and the Women’s Suffrage Movement, 1907-1914’ in Christopher Whatley (ed), The Remaking of Juteopolis (Abertay Historical Society, 1991), pp. 80-96.

Taylor, Marsali, Women’s Suffrage in Shetland (2010)

Watson, Norman, Daughters of Dundee (Dundee: 1997) [Lila Clunas]

Watson, Norman, Dundee’s Suffragettes (Perth, 1990)

West Lothian Local History Library, Suffragettes in West Lothian (2014)

Women of Moray [Helen Leslie Mackenzie; Lavinia Malcolm; Alice Ker; Ethel Fenwick; Nora Mackay; Nannie Wells]


Women’s History Scotland exists to promote study and research in women’s and gender history, particularly for those working in Scotland or working on Scottish themes. It has a commitment to history at all levels and aims to provide a network of information and support to all. Browse our website for news of activities and projects concerning women’s and gender history in Scotland.


Esther Breitenbach

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